In findings that come as no surprise, students who are white, Asian, female and not from low-income families are more likely to be admitted and attend the city's most selective high schools than students who are black, Latino, male and poor, according to a new report.
But the study from the Pew Charitable Trusts' Philadelphia Research Initiative, which tracked the 2015-16 9th-grade class, did contain a few eye-opening revelations, said author Michelle Schmitt.
One is that Latino students with high test scores applied less frequently to get into these programs than high-scoring students from other groups. Compounding that, Latino students with high test scores who did apply were less likely to be admitted, and those who were admitted were less likely to attend.
Another surprise was that 11 percent of the students admitted to the city's most selective schools and programs did not have the minimum test scores necessary, Schmitt said. In follow-up interviews, school and District officials theorized that this was primarily because some of the programs had space left over after all students with qualifying scores had been admitted.
At the same time, many students who did have proficient or advanced test scores did not get into the most selective schools, and there were significant differences in those numbers depending on race, gender, and socioeconomic circumstances.
For instance, 22 percent of all students with proficient and advanced scores in both language arts and math did not get into the most selective schools and programs. But among these high scorers, some groups had rejection rates were higher or lower than 22 percent: for black students, it was 26 percent; for Latinos, 34 percent; for whites, 20 percent; and for Asians, 8 percent.
Twenty-eight percent of boys who met the test score requirements didn't get in, compared to 18 percent of girls. For students who receive federal poverty assistance, 27 percent didn't get in; for better-off students, the figure was 17 percent.
Overall, 14 percent of students who had qualifying test scores did not apply to the most selective schools, but for Latinos, that number was 24 percent. By comparison, just 3 percent of Asian students with qualifying scores didn't apply.
And there were also significant differences in the percentages of students in each of the groups who had qualifying test scores to begin with. Overall, 41 percent of all students scored proficient or advanced on the PSSA tests. But 71 percent of Asian students did so, compared to 61 percent of whites, 34 percent of Latinos, and 33 percent of blacks. For girls, 46 percent had the scores, but just 37 percent of boys. For students in poverty, the figure is 35 percent, compared to 53 percent of students not in poverty. And for English learners, just 3 percent scored at least proficient on both language arts and math. Six percent of special education students scored at that level.
Follow-up interviews with school and District officials and community groups indicated that the low Latino participation in the application process and their lower attendance rate even when accepted has to do with transportation issues and an overall reluctance for students to attend schools outside their neighborhoods.
Special education students with qualifying scores made up just 2 percent of the overall qualifying pool, and English language learners, just 1 percent. The District is under court order to enroll a minimum percentage of special education students and English learners in its most selective schools.
Pew analyzed individual student data for the cohort of students who attended District or charter schools in the 8th grade in 2014-15 and entered 9th grade in 2015-16, a total of more than 13,000 students. It found that in that year, 3,468 students attended special admission schools and programs, 2,111 attended citywide schools and programs, and 3,603 attended neighborhood schools. And 4,013 went to charters, which are legally required to choose students through a lottery if there are more applicants than spaces.
Overall, the numbers plainly show wide disparities when broken down by race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, as well as for special education students and English language learners.
Schmitt did not want to offer any recommendations for change, but she said: "Philadelphia has a centralized application process, but a decentralized admissions system."
In other words, students fill out a standard application form online, but admissions decisions are made by the individual schools. Other cities have moved to "universal enrollment," in which both applications and admissions decisions are made centrally. Philadelphia rejected that approach three years ago.
"We can't say one [method] is better than another. All cities have problems with their systems," Schmitt said.
The data also indicate that the admissions process exacerbates segregation in schools by race and income.
The composition of students in special admission schools also varies significantly by neighborhood. In some zip codes, including parts of Center City, South Philadelphia, and Roxborough, more than half the 9th graders were in special admission schools. In parts of North, West, and Northeast Philadelphia, the percentages were below a quarter.
Central High School alone has 16 percent of all the students in special admission schools, but 21 percent of the white students. In fact, more than half the white students in selective schools are concentrated in just four places: Central, the Arts Academy at Benjamin Rush, the magnet programs at Northeast High School, and Masterman. (Ironically, although this is true, all of these schools are among the most integrated in the area in terms of the diversity of their student bodies.)
Seven programs enroll high levels of black students: Parkway Northwest, Parkway West, Lankenau, Motivation, Hill-Freedman, Carver High School of Engineering & Science, and Parkway Center City. And six special admission schools enroll very low percentages of black students compared to their total percentage in the system, including Girard Academic Music Program, Rush, and Central (all around a quarter, compared to 56 percent of all 9th graders being black), Northeast (17 percent), Masterman (11 percent in the high school grades), and the George Washington High School International Baccalaureate program (8 percent).
Philadelphia School District Demographics