Taking multicultural, anti-racist education seriously
An interview with educator Enid Lee
The following is condensed from an interview with Enid Lee, a consultant on language, culture, race, and class as they relate to education, organizational development and community participation. She is author of Letters to Marcia: a Teachers’ Guide to Anti-Racist Education, Academic Achievement and Anti-Racist Education, and Beyond Heroes and Holidays. Lee has taught school in the Caribbean and Canada and has been involved in the professional development of teachers for two decades. She was interviewed by Barbara Miner of Rethinking Schools.
What do you mean by a multicultural education?
The term "multicultural education" has a lot of different meanings. The term I use most often is "anti-racist education."
Multicultural or anti-racist education is fundamentally a perspective. It’s a point of view that cuts across all subject areas, and addresses the histories and experiences of people who have been left out of the curriculum. Its purpose is to help us deal equitably with all the cultural and racial differences that you find in the human family. It’s also a perspective that allows us to get at explanations for why things are the way they are in terms of power relationships, in terms of equality issues.
So when I say multicultural or anti-racist education, I am talking about equipping students, parents, and teachers with the tools needed to combat racism and ethnic discrimination, and to find ways to build a society that includes all people on an equal footing.
It also has to do with how the school is run in terms of who gets to be involved with decisions. It has to do with parents and how their voices are heard or not heard. It has to do with who gets hired in the school.
If you don’t take multicultural education or anti-racist education seriously, you are actually promoting a monocultural or racist education. There is no neutral ground on this issue.
What are some ways your perspective might manifest itself in a kindergarten classroom, for example?
It might manifest itself in something as basic as the kinds of toys and games that you select. If all the toys and games reflect the dominant culture and race and language, then that’s what I call a monocultural classroom even if you have kids of different backgrounds in the class.
I have met some teachers who think that just because they have kids from different races and backgrounds, they have a multicultural classroom. Bodies of kids are not enough.
It also gets into issues such as what kind of pictures are up on the wall? What kinds of festivals are celebrated? What are the rules and expectations in the classroom in terms of what kinds of language are acceptable? What kinds of interactions are encouraged? How are the kids grouped? These are just some of the concrete ways in which a multicultural perspective affects a classroom.
Teachers have limited money to buy new materials. How can they begin to incorporate a multicultural education even if they don’t have a lot of money?
We do need money and it is a pattern to underfund anti-racist initiatives so that they fail. We must push for funding for new resources because some of the information we have is downright inaccurate. But if you have a perspective, which is really a set of questions that you ask about your life, and you have the kids ask, then you can begin to fill in the gaps.
Columbus is a good example. It turns the whole story on its head when you have the children try to find out what the people who were on this continent might have been thinking and doing and feeling when they were being "discovered," tricked, robbed and murdered. You might not have that information on hand, because that kind of knowledge is deliberately suppressed. But if nothing else happens, at least you shift your teaching, to recognize the native peoples as human beings, to look at things from their view.
There are other things you can do without new resources. You can include, in a sensitive way, children’s backgrounds and life experiences. One way is through interviews with parents and with community people, in which they can recount their own stories, especially their interactions with institutions like schools, hospitals and employment agencies. These are things that often don’t get heard.
I’ve seen schools inviting grandparents who can tell stories about their own lives, and these stories get to be part of the curriculum later in the year. It allows excluded people, it allows humanity, back into the schools. One of the ways that discrimination works is that it treats some people’s experiences, lives, and points of view as though they don’t count, as though they are less valuable than other people’s.
I know we need to look at materials. But we can also take some of the existing curriculum and ask kids questions about what is missing, and whose interest is being served when things are written in the way they are. Both teachers and students must alter that material.
What are some things to look for in choosing good literature and resources?
I encourage people to look for the voices of people who are frequently silenced, people we haven’t heard from: people of color, women, poor people, working-class people, people with disabilities, and gays and lesbians.
I also think that you look for materials that invite kids to seek explanations beyond the information that is before them, materials that give back to people the ideas they have developed, the music they have composed, and all those things which have been stolen from them and attributed to other folks. Jazz and rap music are two examples that come to mind.
I encourage teachers to select materials that reflect people who are trying and have tried to change things to bring dignity to their lives, for example Africans helping other Africans in the face of famine and war. This gives students a sense of empowerment and some strategies for making a difference in their lives. I encourage them to select materials that visually give a sense of the variety in the world.
Teachers also need to avoid materials that blame the victims of racism and other “isms.”
In particular, I encourage them to look for materials that are relevant. And relevance has two points: not only where you are, but also where you want to go.
In all of this we need to ask what’s the purpose, what are we trying to teach, what are we trying to develop?
Reprinted from the book Rethinking Our Classrooms,Volume 1: Teaching for Equity and Justice, Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools Press, 1994. For more information, see www.rethinkingschools.org or call 1-800-669-4192.